Welcome back!! We hope you have all had a great Christmas break spent with family and friends.
Well what a couple of weeks its been record rainfalls recorded throughout our districts with falls recorded over the 300mm over a 2-3 day period. With major infrastructure damage to paddocks, fences and roads it will take many years to repair and in some cases paddocks will be scared for life. If anyone out there is doing it tough please reach out to family or friends don’t sit in silence!!
It has been the common thread for the past few years getting “organised” with all your cropping input requirements, it will be even more important this season!
With excellent rains around Australia there will be issues with product shortages and delays especially knockdown products. (Glyphosate, paraquat etc.) Most product that is in the country will be used for summer knockdown placing pressure on supply chain to deliver new stock in time for seeding as there is still significant delays with shipping. So make sure your
covered for seeding.
In this issue we will discuss Fertiliser markets, new pre-emergent products, updated information on brackling in barley, Russian Wheat Aphid, Kingbale Oats, Canola seed and more.
This is an interesting one and well worth keeping an eye on, with excellent soil moisture and crop potential I’m sure we will be seeing N deficient crops moving into winter/ spring.
Capitalising on potential yield will be critical this year and a nitrogen source should be budgeted for as lower input fertiliser rates will be back on traditional rates due to high AP prices.
International Urea market has dropped considerably over the past few months @ 35%! Natural gas becoming more readily available in Europe (the key ingredient in Urea) has been another reason for the price to decrease. Domestically there will be shortages of Urea for our Pre-plant market due to the high pricing and lack of commitment from the market. Suppliers have reduced or pulled back on product coming into Australia for the pre-plant market and the fact it could continue to decrease moving into the post topdressing market.
This trend seems to be global and could also create shortages with further price reductions, potentially down to $A800-1000/t from current $A1150/t. Urea has dropped @ $300/t domestically in the past 10 days from a high of $A1500.00/t. All speculation at this stage and could go the other way and increase if political tension continues between Russia and Ukraine.
AP (MAP/DAP) Market
This market has been strong internationally and stable domestically now for the past 5-6 weeks with pricing sitting at $1440-$1450 / tonne. In fact pricing increased $US20/ t last week. So if you are holding off thinking pricing will decrease it is unlikely to happen for this cropping season. If you wait until April to order fertiliser you will potentially not have it in time for seeding.
Nitrogen & Deep N Testing
With the higher than average priced nitrogen market heading into this season, and the high level of stored moisture Nitrogen management will be critical for hitting our target yield this season. I will be doing Deep N testing in the coming months before seeding to get a better understanding of soil Nitrogen levels and how much mineralisation we have accumulated after recent rains. It will be extremely important this season that we have a clear picture of where our soil Nitrogen levels sit to capitalise on stored moisture and achieve high target yields.
To give you something to think about, if we apply 80kg/ha Croplift 19 (15kg of N) at seeding and we have 30kg/ha of stored soil Nitrogen after last years cereal crop that would give us 45kg of N in the soil. If we work on a Nitrogen use efficiency of 50% this would in theory only be enough Nitrogen to grow a 1.12t/ha wheat crop. If that stored N level is changed to 60kg/ha we now have enough N to grow 1.88t/ha, so by having a better understanding of stored Nitrogen levels on your Stubble, Legume and pasture paddocks it will make Nitrogen decisions much easier and much more efficient come top dressing time.
Whilst everyone is busy summer spraying to conserve moisture, think about the Nitrogen you are also conserving. In 2012 a study was done measuring the effect summer weed control provided on total soil nitrogen levels, suggesting up to 36% loss of Nitrogen soil levels where weeds were not controlled.
A full timely summer spray program - 168.90kg/ha of Nitrogen
A full spray however application was delayed - 143.30kg/ha of Nitrogen
No summer spray program - 124.30kg/ha of Nitrogen
That is loss of 44.60kg/ha of stored soil Nitrogen by not spraying, this equates to 97kg/ha of Urea and if you take into account only 50% of in crop efficacy of your urea that totals to a loss of 194kg/ha of Urea. With current urea prices that is a loss of $213-252/ha in Nitrogen inputs, incase you needed any more motivation with current chemical pricing to keep paddocks clean.
A general rule of thumb, approximately 40kg N/ha (86kg/ha of Urea) for every tonne of wheat grain yield (cereals) and 80kg N/ha (170kg/ha of Urea) for every tonne of canola grain yield
Grain protein below 10.50% in wheat last season indicates that Nitrogen supply to your crop is costing you yield and profitability.
Nitrogen efficiency from in crop top dress applications may not be as high as you think. From your in crop spreading program you should only expect crop uptake in that season of 40-45% for Wheat, 45-50% for Barley and 33% for Canola. Meaning roughly of 50% of your urea spread is used by that crop in that given sseason.
Early applications of nitrogen are essential to maximise yield potential and decrease risk of screenings - Nitrogen applications before end of tillering (GS20-29) can increase tiller and dry matter leading to yield. Applications after Stem Elongation (GS30-39) can improve tiller survival and maintain yield. When applying Nitrogen after end of booting (GS49) it will mainly effect grain protein not yield and increase risk of hay-off
If you have low soil nitrogen levels, there is a very low risk of haying off with 30 to 40 kg/ha of nitrogen, (65kg-85kg of urea) even in below average seasons as long as it is applied early in the season. (Proven in Victorian Mallee long term Nitrogen trials)
Please get in contact with me if you would like some testing done, i will then work with you to put together a Nitrogen budget for the season, Kevin .
- New Products Worth Considering from a resistance strategy-
- Mateno Complete - Bayer Crop Science-
Key Information on Mateno Complete
Three active ingredients from three different mode of action groups
Contains Pyroxasulfone - the active in Sakura
Contains a new active called Aclonifen, new mode of action group
Registered for application in both Wheat & Barley
Can be applied IBS (incorporated by sowing) or EPE (early post-emergence) in Wheat only
Application rate - 750ml/ha - 1L/ha in Wheat and 750ml/ha in Barley
Reliably results across a range of weed growth stages - with Aclonifen having shoot uptake and Pyroxasulfone root uptake
Suppression of Capeweed when applied IBS and registered for control when applied EPE
Figure. Mateno Complete control of Barley Grass
- Reflex - Syngenta-
Key Information on Reflex
Good crop safety on a large range of grain pulses compared to Group C herbicides
A group G that will control group B, C, D, F and I resistant weeds.
Grazing withholding period of 12 weeks
Registered for IBS and PSPE (post sowing pre-emergence) application in Chickpeas, Lupins, Field Peas, Faba Beans and Vetch. Only for IBS application in Lentils.
IBS application rates of 500ml/ha - 1.50L/ha however for lentils 500ml/ha - 1.00L/ha
PSPE application rates 500ml/ha - 1.25L/ha however for Vetch 500ml/ha - 900m/ha
Weeds registered for control on the label include, Indian Hedge Mustard, Wild Turnip, Prickly Lettuce, Sow Thistle and Wireweed
Weeds registered for suppression on the label include, Fleabane, Jersey Cudweed and Capeweed.
It is worth noting Reflex does not have activity on Medic when used either as an IBS or PSPE application.
Pricing for the 2022 season is $8.75/ha for 500ml/ha - $17.50/ha for 1L/ha rate.
Figure. Reflex application timing and rates
- Callisto - Syngenta-
Key Information on Callisto
New mode of action for Pre-Emergent herbicides in cereals
Controls gorup B,C,D,F and I resistant weeds
Provides early broadleaf control, taking pressure of our early post-emergent broadleaf program.
Long residual activity, up to 10 weeks
Registered for IBS application in both Wheat and Barley
IBS label use rate of 100ml/ha - 200ml/ha
Weeds registered for control on the label include, Indian Hedge Mustard, Wild Turnip, Volunteer Field Peas, Lentils and Vetch, Capeweed, Prickly Lettuce,
Weeds registered for suppression on the label include, Ball medic, Wireweed, Volunteer lupins and at the 200ml/ha rate suppression of Jersey Cudweed and Double Gee.
Pricing for the 2022 season is $7.88/ha for 100ml/ha - $15.76/ha for 200ml/ha rate.
It is worth noting that with steep price increases with products like Diuron this year, Callisto will be a good option for pre-emergent broadleaf control on weeds such as Capeweed and Indian Hedge Mustard as well as strong suppression on medic.
Brackling Barley Update from 2021 Harvest
Intergrain have release an update on brackling in barley, which has been most notably observed in Spartacus CL barley throughout our district. Brackling is different from either lodging or head loss, it is kinking or buckling of the stem at or near the upper node, effecting the top 1/3 of the plant, and typically occurs as the straw dries out. This form of straw weakness is due to both genetic and environmental effects.
What has been observed
Paddock reports indicate varieties have different susceptibility to brackling.
Spartacus CL appears to be more susceptible to brackling whilst Maximus CL, appears to be one of the improved varieties in side-by-side trial observations.
Spartacus CL has very good head retention (good peduncle strength), but can suffer considerable yield loss when brackled, as it is difficult to get all crop into the header front, with some heads falling below the cutter bar
Genetically, there is little correlation between brackling and traditional head loss susceptibility. However, brackling can result in head loss (heads still on the straw) due to challenging harvest conditions
Lodging, head loss and brackling are all different and varieties need to be rated for each of these traits separately.
Environmental conditions influence all these traits
Variety – Straw Strength Agronomics
Given the differences in varietal susceptibilities to brackling, lodging and head loss, it is important to know a variety’s rating for each of these traits when choosing a variety. The table below provides a summary of these traits as observed in InterGrain internal trials and the 2021 Victorian Crop Sowing guide.
Key points worth noting are:
Maximus CL is considered a significant improvement compared to Spartacus CL for brackling and is generally considered to have a relatively low risk of lodging and head loss
Commodus CL has a lower brackling risk than Spartacus CL, although has a moderate head loss and lodging risk, especially in higher yielding environment
When making your choice about a variety, it’s about weighing up what characteristics you need from your variety and what yield you are expecting.
So if you are wanting to keep a "dwarf" type barley it will be worth switching from Spartacus CL to Maximus CL, this was very noticeable when we harvested the barley trials at our trial site last year.
Figure. InterGrain Clearfield® Barley Traits
Kingbale Oats Update - 2022
Earlier this year Kingbale was successful in receiving an (IBS) registration for hay and seed production with the use of Sentry, and now will be available in 2022.
The APVMA are currently assessing a Sentry registration application for use in Kingbale feed grain, and a decision is expected in April 2022 following a Trade Consultation in February 2022. A successful registration will allow Kingbale to be consumed on-farm and sold into domestic feed markets, although Kingbale will be unable to be delivered to any local grain receival sites.
Kingbale is a single gene IMI tolerant oaten hay variety, a world first
Mid-maturing variety with improved tolerance to soil residual imidazolinone herbicides (IBS only - NOT post-emergent application)
Sentry (Imazapic & Imazapyr) has now been registration for application with Kingbale Oats (IBS only - NOT post-emergent application)
An ideal variety for use where there are IMI residue concerns from previous crops
Tall variety with good early vigour
Canola Seed Supply
With prices holding strong it is expected to be are large canola planting this season. So once again canola seed supply is tight for the major lines suited to our climate. if you are growing canola or are thinking of growing it please make sure you have spoken to us about sourcing your seed for the season. In our trials last season the Hybrid seed out yielded farmer retained seed by 540kg/ha. (We will have more information coming out shortly on our trial results)
A Guide to Roundup Ready Canola Technology
Glyphosate tolerance in canola can be broken into two generations, first generation is Roundup Ready which has been in available since 2008 and then more recently in 2019 the second generation was released called TruFlex Canola.
It is important to understand the difference between the two generations as they offer very different weed control options.
By being able to apply early in crop glyphosate applications it gives us get options to control small weeds, especially more difficult broadleaf weeds such as Capeweed. This is where we see its fit in our system as we are fortunate enough that our "Dim" technology is still working well for us in most situations. The larger window of application with the TruFlex technology also may offer some advantage against later germinating Barley Grass or if you slightly miss the Budding window.
There has been some great research been done with the mix of the two groups, Clethodim & Glyphosate controlling resistant or large ryegrass. This does allow us to not be totally reliant on Group A & B herbicides for our grass weed control.
Medic Pastures - Flumetsulam
When you are spraying medic pasture paddocks in the coming weeks, with the recent moisture and warm soil conditions it is the perfect time to get some Flumetsulam (Broadstrike) out in these paddocks. Getting Broadstrike out before weeds have germinated or when they are very small and conditions are warm will give you your best results with this product. If you are using this product on larger weeds in colder winter conditions you can expect poor results. An early application of Flumetsulam at 25g/ha - 50g/ha will provide your medic pastures a chance to get ahead by managing weeds such as Capeweed, Wild Turnip, Indian Hedge Mustard, Wards Weed and Marshmallow.
Russian Wheat Aphid - Imidacloprid
Once again this season we saw Russian Wheat Aphid (RWA) return in strong numbers.
The application of Imidacloprid on seed demonstrated its value this season with cereal crops protected in those important growth stages throughout the season.
Something important to keep in mind this season... with recent rain events we have plenty of volunteer cereals up and going, perfect host for RWA . This is especially important to note given pasture paddocks are retaining vol. cereal for feed presenting a perfect breeding ground for early in season RWA pressure. Therefore once again it will be important to have cereals protected for the season ahead. Seed treatment costs $3.00-3.50/ha and in crop insecticide control $6.00-$7.50/ha plus your time and boomspray expense's.
Come speak to us about securing your requirements.
As always, please feel free to ring us to discuss any of your specific issues, questions or you are looking for more detail.
Kevin Dart - 0474 272 577
Troy Maitland - 0499 272 544